Menstrual cycle phase
About:Menstrual cycle phase is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1051 publications have been published within this topic receiving 39138 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR:虽然男人似乎a stronger hypothalamic drive in response to stressful stimulation than women, differences in salivary-free cortisol levels, at least in part, may be explained by estradiol-induced changes in corticosteroid-binding protein levels.
Abstract:目的:从动物和人类的研究结果uggest that disregulations of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are involved in several behavioral, circulatory, endocrine, and immune disorders with clear-cut gender differences in disease prevalence. The aim of the present study was to investigate sex-specific HPA response patterns with a focus on the contribution of gonadal steroids as possible mediators. Methods: A total of 81 healthy adults were investigated in the present study. Twenty men, 19 women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle, 21 women in the luteal phase, and 21 women using oral contraceptives (OC) were exposed to a brief psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and injected with 0.25 mg ACTH 1‐24 on consecutive days. Basal HPA activity was investigated by repeatedly measuring cortisol levels immediately after awakening, as well as in 30-minute intervals from 9:00 AM to 9:00 PM. Additionally, questionnaires were used to assess psychological state and trait parameters. Results: Results show that the TSST induced significant increases in ACTH, salivary-free cortisol, total plasma cortisol, and heart rates, as well as increased wakefulness and reduced calmness in the total group. Significant group differences emerged for ACTH and salivary-free cortisol stress responses: Although men showed higher ACTH responses to the TSST compared with each of the three groups of women, salivary cortisol responses showed the following response pattern: Luteal 5 Men . Follicular 5 OC. The salivary cortisol responses to ACTH 1‐24 showed a similar response pattern: Luteal . Men . Follicular . OC. In contrast, total blood cortisol levels did not reveal any group difference between sexes or follicular versus luteal phase in either test. Although a similar salivary-free cortisol increase after awakening was found in the four groups, the circadian cortisol profile was significantly different throughout the first 4 hours of sampling. Questionnairederived psychological variables, as measured in the present study, could not explain the observed results. Conclusions: We conclude that gender, menstrual cycle phase, and OC use exert important effects on HPA responsiveness to psychosocial stress in healthy subjects. Although men seem to have a stronger hypothalamic drive in response to stressful stimulation than women, differences in salivary-free cortisol levels, at least in part, may be explained by estradiol-induced changes in corticosteroid-binding protein levels. ACTH and cortisol secretion is not affected by OC use per se but the amount of bioavailable unbound cortisol (“free”) is greatly reduced in this group of women after stimulation. Inasmuch as none of these differences between the study groups emerged in total blood cortisol levels, we strongly advocate for the simultaneous measurement of free and total cortisol levels in future studies on HPA functioning. Key words: psychosocial stress, HPA axis, sex differences, menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, salivary cortisol, TSST, CBG.
TL;DR:neurofunctional调制提供了证据of the reward system by gonadal steroid hormones in humans and establish a neurobiological foundation for understanding their impact on vulnerability to drug abuse, neuropsychiatric diseases with differential expression across males and females, and hormonally mediated mood disorders.
Abstract:从动物研究,有相当多的证据显示that the mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine systems are sensitive to circulating gonadal steroid hormones. Less is known about the influence of estrogen and progesterone on the human reward system. To investigate this directly, we used functional MRI and an event-related monetary reward paradigm to study women with a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design across the menstrual cycle. Here we show that during the midfollicular phase (days 4-8 after onset of menses) women anticipating uncertain rewards activated the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala more than during the luteal phase (6-10 days after luteinizing hormone surge). At the time of reward delivery, women in the follicular phase activated the midbrain, striatum, and left fronto-polar cortex more than during the luteal phase. These data demonstrate augmented reactivity of the reward system in women during the midfollicular phase when estrogen is unopposed by progesterone. Moreover, investigation of between-sex differences revealed that men activated ventral putamen more than women during anticipation of uncertain rewards, whereas women more strongly activated the anterior medial prefrontal cortex at the time of reward delivery. Correlation between brain activity and gonadal steroid levels also revealed that the amygdalo-hippocampal complex was positively correlated with estradiol level, regardless of menstrual cycle phase. Together, our findings provide evidence of neurofunctional modulation of the reward system by gonadal steroid hormones in humans and establish a neurobiological foundation for understanding their impact on vulnerability to drug abuse, neuropsychiatric diseases with differential expression across males and females, and hormonally mediated mood disorders.
TL;DR:The data suggest that the morning cortisol response is influenced by the awakening time but not by menstrual cycle phase, and health status and age appear to have an impact on this marker of adrenocortical activity.
Abstract:Recent evidence suggested that the free cortisol response to awakening is influenced by awakening time in healthy younger adults (Edwards et al., 2001). In order to investigate this association further, 179 community-dwelling subjects of a large age range (4–75 yrs) participated in the present study. The sample consisted of 99 women, 67 men and 13 children. Subjects were instructed to obtain saliva samples directly after awakening as well as 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes thereafter. A first analysis revealed that salivary cortisol profiles after awakening in healthy subjects differed from profiles in subjects who reported health problems or a chronic disease (p = 0.02) with healthy subjects showing a larger cortisol response. Therefore, only healthy subjects were included in the following analyses. Subjects woke up between 0455 and 1203 h. Time of awakening strongly influenced the course of morning cortisol levels. Cortisol profiles differed significantly between two wakeup groups (p0.001). Similarly, group differences for cortisol increase (p = 0.03) and area under the curve (p = 0.05) were also significant, with more pronounced responses in early awakeners compared to late awakeners. The findings are discussed with respect to the circadian cortisol rhythm and the effects of light exposure. Age was correlated with the cortisol levels immediately after awakening (r = 0.2, p = 0.04), the area under the cortisol curve ( r = –0.20, p = 0.05), and with time of awakening (r = –0.21, p = 0.04), respectively. No differences were found between males and females, or between profiles obtained during the follicular or luteal menstrual cycle phase. Also, no differences were observed between habitual smokers vs. non-smokers. These data suggest that the morning cortisol response is influenced by the awakening time
TL;DR:Frequent hugs between spouses/partners are associated with lower BP and higher OT levels in premenopausal women; OT-mediated reduction in central adrenergic activity and peripheral effects of OT on the heart and vasculature are pathways to examine in future research.
Abstract:In animals, ventral stroking for >5 days increases oxytocin (OT) activity and decreases blood pressure (BP), but related human studies are few. Thus, relationships between self-reported frequency of partner hugs, plasma OT and BP levels were examined in 59 premenopausal women before and after warm contact with their husbands/partners ending with hugs. Higher baseline OT before partner contact was associated with lower BP and heart rate, and met criteria to be a partial mediator of the lower resting BP shown by women reporting more frequent hugs (P < 0.05). OT levels during post-contact stress were unrelated to hugs or BP. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence any OT measure. Thus, frequent hugs between spouses/partners are associated with lower BP and higher OT levels in premenopausal women; OT-mediated reduction in central adrenergic activity and peripheral effects of OT on the heart and vasculature are pathways to examine in future research.
TL;DR:Results from the hormone assays indicate that the women had a significantly greater than expected percentage of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during midcycle (ovulatory phase) and a less than expected proportion of those injuries during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.
Abstract:Anterior cruciate ligament injury rates are reported to be two to eight times higher in women than in men within the same sport. Because the menstrual cycle with its monthly hormonal fluctuations is one of the most basic differences between men and women, we investigated the association between the distribution of confirmed anterior cruciate ligament tears and menstrual cycle phase. Sixty-nine female athletes who sustained an acute anterior cruciate ligament injury were studied within 24 hours of injury at four centers. The mechanism of injury, menstrual cycle details, use of oral contraceptives, and history of previous injury were recorded. Urine samples were collected to validate menstrual cycle phase by measurement of estrogen, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone metabolites and creatinine levels at the time of the anterior cruciate ligament tear. Results from the hormone assays indicate that the women had a significantly greater than expected percentage of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during midcycle (ovulatory phase) and a less than expected percentage of those injuries during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Oral contraceptive use diminished the significant association between anterior cruciate ligament tear distribution and the ovulatory phase.