存档 • Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States •
About:Philadelphia Zoo is a archive organization based out in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Leontopithecus rosalia. The organization has 25 authors who have published 47 publications receiving 1123 citations. The organization is also known as: Philadelphia Zoological Garden.
Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden 1,Columbia University 2,National Institute of Amazonian Research 3,Universidade Federal do Acre 4,Philadelphia Zoo 5,Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária 6,Wageningen University and Research Centre 7,Duke University 8,Zoological Society of London 9,London School of Economics and Political Science 10,Université libre de Bruxelles 11,Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech 12,Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 13,World Wide Fund for Nature 14,University of Amsterdam 15,Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 16,Wildlife Conservation Society 17,Center for International Forestry Research 18,University of Oxford 19,Universiti Sains Malaysia 20,Universidad Autónoma Gabriel René Moreno 21,Kyoto University 22,University of Bangka Belitung 23,University of North Sumatra 24,苏黎世大学 25,University of Los Andes 26,Indonesian Institute of Sciences 27,Southern Cross University 28,Naturalis 29,Missouri Botanical Garden 30,Universidad Nacional de la Amazonía Peruana 31,Kagoshima University 32,University of Copenhagen 33,Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute 34,University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee 35,Liverpool John Moores University 36,Chinese Academy of Sciences 37
TL;DR:In this paper, the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore which intrinsic (species trait) and extrinsic (environment) variables are associated with the density of trees and forest biomass at continental and pan-tropical scales.
Abstract:Aim Large trees (d.b.h. 70 cm) store large amounts of biomass. Several studies suggest that large trees may be vulnerable to changing climate, poten- tially leading to declining forest biomass storage. Here we determine the importance of large trees for tropical forest biomass storage and explore which intrinsic (species trait) and extrinsic (environment) variables are associated with the density of large trees and forest biomass at continental and pan-tropical scales. Location Pan-tropical.
TL;DR:Aggression by resident tamarins toward potential immigrants appeared to be the proximate factor limiting movement into groups, and potential female immigrants were sometimes chased by male as well as female residents.
Abstract:Seventeen territorial groups of wild golden lion tamarins were monitored for periods of 10-76 months. Immigration into established groups was rare (0.48 immigrating individuals per group per year) and occurred mostly in the context of replacement of breeding individuals. Nonreplacement immigration events usually occurred in conjunction with some other change in group composition (e.g., an emigration or another immigration). Aggression by resident tamarins toward potential immigrants appeared to be the proximate factor limiting movement into groups. Most such aggression was intrasexual, but potential female immigrants were sometimes chased by male as well as female residents. Immigration was highly male biased (85% of individuals). Factors possibly contributing to this bias were inheritance of breeding positions by adult daughters (reducing female and increasing male immigration opportunities), ability of males but not females to join groups already containing a same-sex breeding individual, and the fact that potential female immigrants appeared to face some intersexual as well as intrasexual aggression. Male and female roles in the maintenance of a monogynous mating system are considered in light of these results. Contrasts with data from intruder studies on captive golden lion tamarins [French & Inglett, Animal Behaviour 37:487-497, 1989] are discussed. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
TL;DR:The findings suggest that food transfer in golden lion tamarins is best understood as provisioning of young that have not fully developed foraging skills to ensure they get the necessary resources for growth and survival.
Abstract:We collected data from wild and reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia) to describe the behavior of donor and recipient during food transfers, evaluate the effect of supplemental feeding on food transfer behavior, and examine various hypotheses concerning the function of food transfers in primates. Behavioral observations were conducted on 12 groups of tamarins with young (N = 30) between the ages of 1 week and 1 year old. Results show that food transfers involve various behaviors, from steals by recipients to offers by donors; transfers mostly derive from adults and are directed at immature weaned young (between 3 and 9 months old); and that most items transferred were prey or fruits that require skill to process. Eleven percent of food transfers were preceded by an adult vocalization specific to that context, whereas 86% were preceded by conspicuous infant vocalizations and begging behavior. The most common vocalizations were loud and atonal (rasps) and broad banded frequency modulated (trills). Infants born to reintroduced parents vocalized less, whereas reintroduced adults vocalized more before transferring food than their wild counterparts. Reintroduced adults and young received more food transfers (4.4 per hr) than did wild-born adults and young (2.2 per hr). Our findings suggest that food transfer in golden lion tamarins is best understood as provisioning of young that have not fully developed foraging skills to ensure they get the necessary resources for growth and survival.
TL;DR:In this article, the authors describe the strategies used to achieve them and evaluate the educational and conservation outcomes and impacts of the programs, including increased local aware-ness about the bats and their conservation, training of environmental educators, inclusion of bat conservation and environmental issues in the school curricula, and establishment of community-based environmental non- governmental organizations (NGOs).
Abstract:狐livingstonii、p v oeltzkowi和p r odricensis are three critically endangered fruit bats from western Indian Ocean islands for which multidisciplinary conservation programs have been established that include environmental education programs (EEPs). We describe these EEPs in terms of the strategies used to achieve them and evaluate the educational and conservation outcomes and impacts of the programs. Edu- cational outputs (including posters, stickers, videos, lesson plans, and workshops), primarily linking human needs to the ecosystem services provided by bats, were delivered to schools and community groups, and local environmental educators were trained to further develop the EEPs. Outcomes included increased local aware- ness about the bats and their conservation, training of environmental educators, inclusion of bat conservation and environmental issues in the school curricula, and establishment of community-based environmental non- governmental organizations (NGOs). Extensive prior planning, presentations in local languages, distribution of outputs through existing networks of educators, training of local educators, establishment of local envi- ronmental NGOs, and local capacity-building were all associated with these EEPs achieving their goals in the under-resourced island locations where these bats are found. The EEPs were also important in the development of other components of their respective conservation programs, such as population monitoring programs. Although long-term conservation impacts, particularly tackling habitat loss, are slow to materialize and so- cial and economic issues need to be addressed, these EEPs have already had important outcomes and have established the foundation for future conservation actions.
Chinese Academy of Sciences 1,Kagoshima University 2,Duke University 3,Philadelphia Zoo 4,Manchester Metropolitan University 5,Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden 6,Texas Tech University 7,Center for International Forestry Research 8,Universiti Sains Malaysia 9,Stora Enso 10,Royal Holloway, University of London 11,University of Kiel 12,Kyoto University 13,University of Bangka Belitung 14,World Wide Fund for Nature 15,苏黎世大学 16,Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh 17,National Herbarium of the Netherlands 18,Wageningen University and Research Centre 19,Harvard University 20
TL;DR:Proposed biogeographic explanations for plant and animal distributions within Sundaland, including possible migration routes for early humans, need to be reevaluated after results strongly suggest that exposed sandy sea-bed soils acted as a dispersal barrier in centralSundaland.
Abstract:The marked biogeographic difference between western (Malay Peninsula and Sumatra) and eastern (Borneo) Sundaland is surprising given the long time that these areas have formed a single landmass. A dispersal barrier in the form of a dry savanna corridor during glacial maxima has been proposed to explain this disparity. However, the short duration of these dry savanna conditions make it an unlikely sole cause for the biogeographic pattern. An additional explanation might be related to the coarse sandy soils of central Sundaland. To test these two nonexclusive hypotheses, we performed a floristic cluster analysis based on 111 tree inventories from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Borneo. We then identified the indicator genera for clusters that crossed the central Sundaland biogeographic boundary and those that did not cross and tested whether drought and coarse-soil tolerance of the indicator genera differed between them. We found 11 terminal floristic clusters, 10 occurring in Borneo, 5 in Sumatra, and 3 in Peninsular Malaysia. Indicator taxa of clusters that occurred across Sundaland had significantly higher coarse-soil tolerance than did those from clusters that occurred east or west of central Sundaland. For drought tolerance, no such pattern was detected. These results strongly suggest that exposed sandy sea-bed soils acted as a dispersal barrier in central Sundaland. However, we could not confirm the presence of a savanna corridor. This finding makes it clear that proposed biogeographic explanations for plant and animal distributions within Sundaland, including possible migration routes for early humans, need to be reevaluated.
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|Meredith L. Bastian||11||20||1364|
|John G. Trupkiewicz||9||19||352|
|Andrew J. Baker||9||11||379|
|Donna M. Ialeggio||3||8||33|
|Frederick A. Ulmer||3||5||15|
|Marieke Cassia Gartner||2||3||30|
|Kevin J. Murphy||2||3||48|
|Carlos César Martínez-Rivera||1||1||33|
|J. G. Trupkiewicz||1||1||54|
|Virginia R. Pearson||1||1||24|
Zoological Society of London
Ontario Veterinary College
Royal Veterinary College
Virginia–Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute