Healthcare • Houston, Texas, United States •
About:Houston Methodist Hospital is a healthcare organization based out in Houston, Texas, United States. It is known for research contribution in the topics: Population & Transplantation. The organization has 9825 authors who have published 18872 publications receiving 779830 citations. The organization is also known as: The Methodist Hospital.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR:In this paper, the authors present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macro-autophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes.
Abstract:In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. For example, a key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process including the amount and rate of cargo sequestered and degraded). In particular, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation must be differentiated from stimuli that increase autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. It is worth emphasizing here that lysosomal digestion is a stage of autophagy and evaluating its competence is a crucial part of the evaluation of autophagic flux, or complete autophagy. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. Along these lines, because of the potential for pleiotropic effects due to blocking autophagy through genetic manipulation, it is imperative to target by gene knockout or RNA interference more than one autophagy-related protein. In addition, some individual Atg proteins, or groups of proteins, are involved in other cellular pathways implying that not all Atg proteins can be used as a specific marker for an autophagic process. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
TL;DR:It is concluded that clone 29 cDNA encodes a novel rat ER, which is suggested be named rat ERbeta to distinguish it from the previously cloned ER (ERalpha) from rat uterus.
Abstract:We have cloned a novel member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The cDNA of clone 29 was isolated from a rat prostate cDNA library and it encodes a protein of 485 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 54.2 kDa. Clone 29 protein is unique in that it is highly homologous to the rat estrogen receptor (ER) protein, particularly in the DNA-binding domain (95%) and in the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (55%). Expression of clone 29 in rat tissues was investigated by in situ hybridization and prominent expression was found in prostate and ovary. In the prostate clone 29 is expressed in the epithelial cells of the secretory alveoli, whereas in the ovary the granuloma cells in primary, secondary, and mature follicles showed expression of clone 29. Saturation ligand-binding analysis of in vitro synthesized clone 29 protein revealed a single binding component for 17beta-estradiol (E2) with high affinity (Kd= 0.6 nM). In ligand-competition experiments the binding affinity decreased in the order E2 > diethylstilbestrol > estriol > estrone > 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol >> testosterone = progesterone = corticosterone = 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol. In cotransfection experiments of Chinese hamster ovary cells with a clone 29 expression vector and an estrogen-regulated reporter gene, maximal stimulation (about 3-fold) of reporter gene activity was found during incubation with 10 nM of E2. Neither progesterone, testosterone, dexamethasone, thyroid hormone, all-trans-retinoic acid, nor 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,I7beta-diol could stimulate reporter gene activity, whereas estrone and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol did. We conclude that clone 29 cDNA encodes a novel rat ER, which we suggest be named rat ERbeta to distinguish it from the previously cloned ER (ERalpha) from rat uterus.
TL;DR:Intravitreal administration of ranibizumab for 2 years prevented vision loss and improved mean visual acuity, with low rates of serious adverse events, in patients with minimally classic or occult (with no classic lesions) choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration.
Abstract:背景之初——重组、人性化monoclonal antibody Fab that neutralizes all active forms of vascular endothelial growth factor A — has been evaluated for the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. Methods In this multicenter, 2-year, double-blind, sham-controlled study, we randomly assigned patients with age-related macular degeneration with either minimally classic or occult (with no classic lesions) choroidal neovascularization to receive 24 monthly intravitreal injections of ranibizumab (either 0.3 mg or 0.5 mg) or sham injections. The primary end point was the proportion of patients losing fewer than 15 letters from baseline visual acuity at 12 months. Results We enrolled 716 patients in the study. At 12 months, 94.5% of the group given 0.3 mg of ranibizumab and 94.6% of those given 0.5 mg lost fewer than 15 letters, as compared with 62.2% of patients receiving sham injections (P<0.001 for both comparisons). Visual acuity improved by 15 or more letters in 24.8% of the 0.3-mg group and 33.8% of the 0.5-mg group, as compared with 5.0% of the sham-injection group (P<0.001 for both doses). Mean increases in visual acuity were 6.5 letters in the 0.3-mg group and 7.2 letters in the 0.5-mg group, as compared with a decrease of 10.4 letters in the sham-injection group (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The benefit in visual acuity was maintained at 24 months. During 24 months, presumed endophthalmitis was identified in five patients (1.0%) and serious uveitis in six patients (1.3%) given ranibizumab. Conclusions Intravitreal administration of ranibizumab for 2 years prevented vision loss and improved mean visual acuity, with low rates of serious adverse events, in patients with minimally classic or occult (with no classic lesions) choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00056836.)
TL;DR:The 2 existing classification schemes and especially a new stroke risk index, CHADS, can quantify risk of stroke for patients who have AF and may aid in selection of antithrombotic therapy.
Abstract:a c statistic of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.80-0.84), the CHADS2 index was the most accurate predictor of stroke. The stroke rate per 100 patient-years without antithrombotic therapy increased by a factor of 1.5 (95% CI, 1.3-1.7) for each 1-point increase in the CHADS2 score: 1.9 (95% CI, 1.2-3.0) for a score of 0; 2.8 (95% CI, 2.0-3.8) for 1; 4.0 (95% CI, 3.1-5.1) for 2; 5.9 (95% CI, 4.6-7.3) for 3; 8.5 (95% CI, 6.3-11.1) for 4; 12.5 (95% CI, 8.2-17.5) for 5; and 18.2 (95% CI, 10.5-27.4) for 6. Conclusion The 2 existing classification schemes and especially a new stroke risk index, CHADS2, can quantify risk of stroke for patients who have AF and may aid in selection of antithrombotic therapy.