Government • Berlin, Germany •
About:Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety is a government organization based out in Berlin, Germany. It is known for research contribution in the topics: European union & Broth microdilution. The organization has 129 authors who have published 206 publications receiving 5049 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety 1,University of Sussex 2,Iowa State University 3,Monsanto 4,Oregon State University 5,DuPont 6,Calvin College 7,Syngenta 8,United States Department of Agriculture 9,Julius Kühn-Institut 10,University of Guelph 11,Cornell University 12,United States Environmental Protection Agency 13
TL;DR:An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops to provide guidance to regulatory agencies that are currently developing their own NTA risk assessment guidelines for IRGM crops.
Abstract:An international initiative is developing a scientifically rigorous approach to evaluate the potential risks to nontarget arthropods (NTAs) posed by insect-resistant, genetically modified (IRGM) crops. It adapts the tiered approach to risk assessment that is used internationally within regulatory toxicology and environmental sciences. The approach focuses on the formulation and testing of clearly stated risk hypotheses, making maximum use of available data and using formal decision guidelines to progress between testing stages (or tiers). It is intended to provide guidance to regulatory agencies that are currently developing their own NTA risk assessment guidelines for IRGM crops and to help harmonize regulatory requirements between different countries and different regions of the world.
TL;DR:Assessment of management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds.
Abstract:本研究的主要目标是不同ne management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin during the first lactation.
TL;DR:A pragmatic approach to conduct in-house and inter-laboratory validation studies for GMO screening methods, which could be adapted to other areas where qualitative qPCR methods are used for molecular testing allowing to implement easily a more reliable screening phase where necessary.
Abstract:As for many areas of molecular testing, detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) relies on the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technology. Due to the increasing number of GMO, a screening approach using qualitative screening methods has become an integrated part of GMO detection. However, specific guidelines for the validation of these methods are lacking. Here, a pragmatic approach to conduct in-house and inter-laboratory validation studies for GMO screening methods, is proposed. Such guidelines could be adapted to other areas where qualitative qPCR methods are used for molecular testing allowing to implement easily a more reliable screening phase where necessary.
TL;DR:With emerging molecular techniques and analyses, research on crop allele introgression into wild and weedy populations is positioned to make contributions to both transgene flow and the evolution of increased weediness.
Abstract:进化的意义of introgression has been discussed for decades. Questions about potential impacts of transgene flow into wild and weedy populations brought renewed attention to the introgression of crop alleles into those populations. In the past two decades, the field has advanced with considerable descriptive, experimental, and theoretical activity on the dynamics of crop gene introgression and its consequences. As illustrated by five case studies employing an array of different approaches, introgression of crop alleles has occurred for a wide array of species, sometimes without significant consequence, but on occasion leading to the evolution of increased weediness. A new theoretical context has emerged for analyzing empirical data, identifying factors that influence introgression, and predicting introgression's progress. With emerging molecular techniques and analyses, research on crop allele introgression into wild and weedy populations is positioned to make contributions to both trans...
TL;DR:MRSA ST398 isolates varied slightly in their virulence properties and spa types but differed distinctly in their antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes as well as their ApaI-PFGE patterns.
Abstract:Fifty-four methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ST398 isolates from unrelated diseased swine collected all over Germany were comparatively investigated for their antimicrobial resistance and virulence properties, and for their genomic relatedness. MICs of 30 antimicrobial agents were determined by broth microdilution. Resistance and virulence genes were detected via a diagnostic DNA microarray and specific PCRs. The genomic relationships were determined by ApaI-PFGE, spa typing and SCCmec typing. Twenty-two distinct resistance patterns were observed. All 54 isolates were tetracycline resistant, mediated by tet(M), tet(K) and/or tet(L), with 14 isolates being only resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics and tetracyclines. Trimethoprim resistance, seen in 28 isolates, was mostly due to the gene dfrK or dfrG. Among the 24 macrolide/lincosamide-resistant isolates, the genes erm(A), erm(B) and/or erm(C) were detected. The two chloramphenicol/florfenicol-resistant isolates harboured the gene fexA. The eight gentamicin-resistant isolates carried the gene aacA/aphD. Fifty-three isolates harboured SCCmec type V elements while the remaining one carried mecA and ugpQ, but no recombinase genes. All isolates were PVL negative, but one and three isolates, respectively, were positive for the enterotoxin B and enterotoxin K and Q genes. Eight different spa types were identified with t011 being the most predominant. Six ApaI-PFGE clusters with up to nine individual patterns were detected. MRSA ST398 isolates varied slightly in their virulence properties and spa types but differed distinctly in their antimicrobial resistance pheno- and genotypes as well as their ApaI-PFGE patterns. These data underline the ability of ST398 to acquire genetic material that might increase antimicrobial resistance and virulence
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|Carolin S. Stachel||11||20||462|
|Detlef A. Bohm||8||9||233|
Wageningen University and Research Centre
University of Giessen
China Agricultural University